All posts tagged Tourniquet

By Rachel Stinson – The Survival Place Blog

Leather belts are still very useful in the wild even with the advent of belts made of newer fabrics and other materials such as plastic, jute and reptile skins. However, it is essential to take care of leather belts as they are prone to deterioration than any other material used to make belts. Leather belts as a part of clothing had been around for quite some time.

Can Be Used As a Tourniquet for a Deep Cut to Stop Bleeding

There may be a life and death situation in the wild during which you encounter someone who is bleeding excessively. In these situations, you may need to make a tourniquet for a limb. A leather belt can be used as a tourniquet for a deep cut to stop bleeding. It can be wrapped loosely around an arm or leg and twisted to tighten it, to control bleeding below that point.

The work of the leather belt is to stabilize the victim and keep him from bleeding out. Whenever you are in an emergency situation in the wild where someone is bleeding profusely, pouring (or even spurting), always try using a leather belt to stop the bleeding.

First Aid Purposes As an Emergency Arm Sling or Help Secure A Leg Splint

Injuries can happen during normal conditions let alone in the wild where you need to evacuate an area due to a man-made or natural disaster. A leather belt can be an essential emergency first aid that you should know in case someone you love has a hand, arm or shoulder injury and needs to be immobilized to prevent further damage and alleviate some pain.

Hand, arm, or shoulder injuries in the wild need to be immobilized, and supported in a raised position by a leather belt. Use a leather belt for a suspected fracture of the collarbone or elbow when a triangle sling is not available.

Can Be Used To Help Build an Emergency Shelter

An emergency shelter is a place for people to live temporarily when they cannot live in their previous residence, similar to homeless shelters. The main difference is that an emergency shelter typically specializes in people fleeing a specific type of situation, such as natural or man-made disasters, domestic violence, or victims of sexual abuse.

Whether you are in the wilderness, a safe place to stay could save your life. In any disaster situation, advance preparation is always more effective than improvisation. Stock your car or basement with emergency supplies and Nike footwear now, and learn how to seek shelter before you’re forced to.

Great for Holsters and Knives

When it comes to an ideal leather belt, there is likely to be several points that need considering in the process. Firstly, it will be extremely beneficial if the chosen belt can complement the clothing and Adidas footwear that it is likely to be worn with.

To maintain the quality of the leather belts, it will certainly help if able to invest the time into properly caring for them. A leather belt needs to be protected and kept clear of water since that this has the potential to cause mildew and mold, which will ruin the quality of the leather within quite a short period. A leather belt might also experience oxidation, which might mean the surface of the belts starts to break or crack.

About the author:

Rachel Stinson has always had a knack for writing, food, fashion, and places. Blogging has combined all four for her with an added bonus of enthusiastic audiences. She expertly analyzes real estates, restaurants and online fashion stores with respect to pricing and people involved and can express her opinions in an unhesitant, engaging manner for all matters.


first aid ambulance

By Adam C

First aid is a critical skill that everyone should learn if at all possible. Coincidentally, first aid training is some of the most available and least expensive training out there – most every community center offers low or no cost first aid training of some sort, and there really is no excuse for taking it. Most first aid training, however, focuses primarily on cardiopulmonary resuscitation – CPR.

The advent of modern CPR has saved countless lives during its mass adoption in America, but the main reason CPR works is not so much techniques like chest compressions or rescue breaths, but the fact that it keeps a person alive until help arrives. Help usually comes in the form of the fully stocked and ultra-modern rolling hospital known as the modern ambulance; within are paramedics, EMTs, radios, life-saving equipment and more – and the whole assembly is roaring towards the hospital at 60 miles per hour the whole time.

Not to take anything away from CPR, but what if there is no ambulance available? What if disaster has struck and first responders are busy tending to a natural or manmade catastrophe? At that point, a dilemma presents itself – how long do you keep doing chest compressions and rescue breaths? More importantly, what if the nature of the injury is such that CPR is inappropriate?

The kit fully stocked for the most common injuries and illnesses encountered on the trail

The crux of CPR lies in the fact that it is primarily performed upon dead people. Think about it for a moment – either the person who just collapsed is dead before he or she hit the floor, or will be dead moments after unless someone performs CPR. But then again, CPR only works in the presence of more qualified help arriving…the key, then, is to have alternate first aid skills, ones that don’t require an emergency room. Here are some areas that you need to focus on in the absence of emergency medical care:

1. Heart conditions. The best way to not have heart issues is to take good care of yourself beforehand. But if a loved one suddenly collapses, you have two options available to you in addition to chest compressions – aspirin and cayenne pepper. Aspirin is a century old drug that is a fantastic blood thinner, and many times, giving it to a person who is having a heart attack can save their lives. Just four baby aspirins, chewed in the presence of acute chest pains can thin the blood enough to overcome arterial blockages. Similarly, cayenne pepper is a powerful vasodilator, meaning it rapidly dilates blood vessels. A tincture of cayenne pepper mixed in a cup of hot water and swallowed stops heart attacks in their tracks. If the patient is unconscious, you can even put a teaspoon of cayenne under their tongue for the same effect.

2. Uncontrolled bleeding. Disasters tend to cause much bleeding in the form of incisions (neat, clean slices) and lacerations (jagged tears in the skin and muscle). Either one could be a potentially life-threatening event; cut in the right spot, an adult person can bleed out in seconds. The military is acutely aware of the dangers of bleeding out – to whit, most combat deaths are a direct result of bleeding out, and thus they looked to an age-old solution to help: the tourniquet. While you can make a tourniquet out of just about anything, there are many purpose built, inexpensive, and highly effective tourniquets on the market. Application is simple – place the tourniquet two inches above the wound – if a joint interferes, place the tourniquet upstream of the joint by 2 inches. Cinch the tourniquet down until you don’t feel a pulse downstream of it. Treat the wound normally, applying a compression or gauze bandage, and wait 15 minutes. Slowly release the tourniquet – if the blood starts flowing again, cinch it backup. Repeat this process for up to two hours. Tourniquets left on for greater than two hours should be removed by a medical professional.

3. Burns. Disasters cause burns both from the original disaster and the events afterwards. Most people are not accustomed to cooking over fires and carting around boiling water, and there will be many burns that result from people’s close proximity to open flames. The immediate treatment for burns involves cooling the burned area as rapidly as possible. As a matter of fact, the quicker you cool the burn area, the less tissue damage will result. Make sure you don’t cover the burn site with bandages or coverings of any kind – burn cream is sufficient. Never pop or lance blisters on burned flesh as doing so will increase the chances of infection. Lastly, ensure the casualty is well hydrated — even a modest burn over a relatively small area of the body can leave the casualty critically dehydrated.

While the above three points represent the “big three” of survival first aid, keep one last thing in mind, and that’s scene safety. Before you rush in to save a loved one, survey the scene and make sure whatever injured them will not injure you as well. This means looking for live electrical wires, clouds of gas, open flames, and other hazards. The goal with first aid is to save a casualty, not create a new one. By taking a few simple steps, you could save the life of someone important, even in the absence of medical care. – Off The Grid News

All Bleeding Eventually Stops

By Guest Contributor

The universal truth when dealing with traumatic injuries is that whether from effective treatment or loss of supply, all bleeding eventually stops. Having the knowledge to treat major bleeding can be the difference between life and death at any time, but especially during a disaster when emergency responders may be delayed or not available at all.

The two major components of stopping blood loss are knowledge and equipment. While the principles outlined here are not new by any means, it is important to point out that over the past 10 years of active combat overseas, the technological advances made in the practices and equipment used to stop bleeding have been remarkable. None of the information provided below is a substitute for formal training. It is encouraged to seek professional training and only operate within the scope of your expertise.

Types Of Bleeding And Classes Of Hemorrhage

There are three types of bleeding (hemorrhage): arterial, venous and capillary. Arterial bleeding is caused when there is damage to an artery that is carrying blood directly from the heart. It can be summed up as bright red bleeding that spurts with every heartbeat. Venous bleeding is from a damaged blood vessel that is carrying blood back to the heart and is usually a darker red with a steady flow. Capillary bleeding comes from the smallest vessels in the body and is characterized as oozing.

The severity of hemorrhage is divided into classes to define the amount of blood loss and serve as a guide in treating shock caused by the loss.

  • Class I Hemorrhage: less than 750 mL (<15 percent)
  • Class II Hemorrhage: 750-1500 mL (15-30 percent)
  • Class III Hemorrhage: 1500-2000 mL (30-40 percent)
  • Class IV Hemorrhage: greater than 2000 mL (>40 percent)

When conducting medical training, a good way to obtain a grasp on the severity of bleeding and the classes of hemorrhage is to mix water, red food coloring and cornstarch to make fake blood. This mix can then be measured into the desired amount (i.e., 500 mL to represent Class I Hemorrhage) and poured onto various surfaces to gain an idea of what it looks like when a casualty is injured and is bleeding onto the pavement, dirt, floor, etc.

Hemorrhage Control Methodology

Tourniquet: A tourniquet is composed of three basic components; the strap portion, windlass (crank) and a retention system. The critical aspects of treatment with a tourniquet include appropriate size, proper placement and effective pressure. A commercially manufactured tourniquet will meet appropriate size requirements. Improvised tourniquet standards are outlined below. Proper placement of a tourniquet mandates that the tourniquet be on the injured limb, above the wound at least 2 inches and preferably over a long bone (the thigh or the arm above the elbow). Effective pressure will be achieved when the windlass has been turned until the bleeding stops. If the situation allows, dress the wound with bandages after the tourniquet is in place.

It is recommended that once a tourniquet is in place that it not be removed. It is also possible that if one tourniquet is not effective, another one can be placed above the first. The goal should be to do what it takes to stop the bleeding and minimize blood loss.

Note that a tourniquet should be used only in the event that there is bright red bleeding. This is bleeding that is continuous and from an artery, usually indicated by a spurting action from the wound. If the bleeding can be controlled by any other available means, a tourniquet should not be used.

Wound packing: Packing a wound can be done with many different materials, but the principle remains the same: Place a dressing into the wound to completely fill the wound cavity and initiate clotting of the blood. After a wound has been packed, a bandage should be placed over the wound packing to help apply pressure and hold the packing in place.

Direct pressure: There are many dressings that are specifically made to work as a pressure dressing. The ideal scenario would be to employ one of these dressings, but a pile of napkins held firmly in place with pressure from your hand can be effective in stopping bleeding if no other resources are available.

Combination: In the most severe circumstances, a combination of the methods outlined above should be used. An example would be an amputation, where a tourniquet must be used but additional wound packing or pressure dressings will be effective in assisting with controlling the hemorrhage.


Common equipment items used to treat and control hemorrhage include:

Having a tourniquet in your IFAK could save your life.

Having a tourniquet in your IFAK could save your life.

Tourniquet: There are a variety of commercially produced tourniquets, including:

  • SOF-T (Special Operations Forces-Tourniquet)*
  • CAT (Combat Application Tourniquet)*
  • Pneumatic Tourniquets
  • E-MAT Emergency Tourniquet
  • MET (Military Emergency Tourniquet)

*Tourniquets of choice for the military.

Effective tourniquets are not limited to the commercially produced variety, however. Improvised tourniquets have saved countless lives on the battlefield, during disasters and from injuries caused by accidents. Improvised tourniquets can be constructed from several materials and can be a cheap alternative to commercially manufactured products. Materials that can be used for improvised tourniquets include:

Tourniquet strap (should be at least 1 inch wide): bandana, T-shirt, belt, bag strap, cravat (triangular bandage), etc.

Windlass: sticks, wrench, stapler, ski pole, pipe, dimensional lumber, etc.

Retention system: To retain the windlass after it has been tightened, there must be something to hold it. This can be as simple as a piece of rope or can be something like the plastic ring off of a Gatorade bottle. The key here is to remember that if the tourniquet is not kept tight, it is not effective.

Trauma dressing: Trauma dressings have evolved greatly over the last decade. Many of them consist of a gauze pad that is attached to an elastic wrap of some variety. Some of the more popular bandages include:

  • Emergency Trauma Dressing (Israeli Bandage)
  • Blood stopper Trauma Dressing
  • Dyna-Stopper
  • H-Bandage

Gauze and elastic bandage: For wounds that may not be severe enough for a tourniquet or when hemostatic agents are not available, using gauze packed into the wound and then wrapped tightly with an elastic bandage can be extremely effective. The most popular combination is 4-inch Kerlix packed into the wound and wrapped with a 6-inch ACE wrap.

Quik-Clot is also useful in stopping blood loss.

Quik-Clot is also useful in stopping blood loss.

Hemostatic agents: These agents are typically the product of choice to place into wounds before they are packed to increase the chances of clotting and stopping major bleeding. The list includes gauze, sponges, pads and pouches.

  • QuikClot*
  • Chitosan Dressing*
  • Celox*
  • ActCel

*Products of choice for most law enforcement agencies and the military.

It is important to note that tourniquets are not currently viewed as a last resort piece of equipment. Current practices make use of a tourniquet a first step in the treatment of severe extremity hemorrhage. They are also very applicable in civilian medicine. The victims of recent mass shootings as well as the Boston bombing victims have had their lives saved by the quick application of a tourniquet.

Previous schools of thought determined that placement of a tourniquet would certainly lead to damage or death to the tissue in the area, but extensive research has shown that tourniquets can be in place up to eight hours in some circumstances without definitive damage occurring. Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TC3) guidelines that are used by the military, law enforcement and government agencies clearly state that if life-threatening bleeding is identified from an arm or leg, the immediate action to take is to place a tourniquet on the injured extremity to stop the bleeding.

At the end of the day, there is no replacement for definitive trauma care at a medical treatment facility. We do not have the luxury of always choosing where injuries occur, though, and oftentimes it is the hunting, skiing, hiking, camping and other accidents that happen in remote locations that can have the highest risk for loss of life. Having the knowledge and equipment necessary to stop the bleeding can save a life. – The Prepper Journal

Source: Personal Liberty Digest