barter system

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Barter is a hot topic in prepper circles, so who better to share his real-world experience with trade in a dangerous situation than Selco?

By Daisy Luther – The Organic Prepper

Barter is a hot topic in prepper circles, so I thought we should ask someone who has a lot of real-world experience with trade in a dangerous situation.

If you don’t know Selco, he survived a year in Bosnia when his city was blockaded. Supplies were not allowed in or out, and residents were left without utilities and services. This interview is in his own words.

How quickly did people turn to barter once your city was locked down?

It was a matter of a few weeks.

Actually, for ordinary folks, it was a matter of few weeks because we did not get the new reality right at the beginning of everything.

Later when I remembered that period, I realized that even right at the beginning of SHTF there were people who did not want to take money for goods. They asked for valuables like gold, jewelry, or weapon for goods that they had.

Some of them were smart enough to realize that money was gonna become worthless really soon, and even gold and jewelry were only good in the first period, and then only if you had a connection to outside world to exchange it for something useful.

Ordinary folks needed few weeks. It was a process that went from buying goods with money, then buying goods from people who still wanted to take money (at outrages prices) to the moment when money was worthless, and only goods for goods were accepted.

It was rare, but sometimes you could find someone who would sell you something for foreign money but at the 20-50 times bigger prices.

For example if pack of cigarettes cost around 1,50 German Mark (outside of the war region) we could buy that pack for 40 German Marks.

US dollar and Canadian dollar had even worse value.

Obviously, people would accept that money had connection to the outside world, and some of them ended up as millionaires because of that.

Same ratio was for precious metals and jewelery.

For small and quick trades, the usual currency were cigarettes, because of the percentage of people that smoked.

Even values were expressed often like “Oh, that’s worth 10 cigarettes.” In other situations it was ammunition-bullets.

How were trade items valued? If someone wanted to make a trade, who set the terms?

Nothing was fixed.

Through the whole period, the value of goods went up and down based on a lot of things.

For example if a UN food convoy managed to enter the city and some local warlord (usually) took it all, and the majority of the food was cans of fish, you could count on the fact that that month those types of cans gonna be cheaper then the month before. Or if that day’s US airplanes managed to “hit“ with airdrops in our area then MREs were going to be bit cheaper to find.

Sometimes a simple rumor (planted by rival groups) for example about “poisoned“ cans of cookies meant that people did not valued it so highly anymore.

Some things did not change value too much during the whole period, like alcohol, simply because it was available.

Other things’ value was a matter of the situation.

For example, if you had a sick kid at home, and you needed antibiotic and you spread that word, you could expect high price simply because you give that information that you need something really hard and fast.

But usually, we knew the value of things (goods) for that week for example, at least approximately.

What were the general rules of trade during this time?

The value of things and trading “rules on the ground“ were similar to trade rules at normal life flea markets.

A few of those “rules on the ground“ during the trade were:

  1. If YOU need something then the price is going up. (Do not look like you desperately need something.)
  2. Do not offer all that you got in “one hand“ or on one try. (Do not go to trade with your best shots all together, it looks desperate, and you are losing all the advantage then.)
  3. Do not ever give a reason for someone to take the risk of attacking you because you have way too cool stuff (or way too much stuff) with you. (Have some amount of food, or ammo, or whatever, do another trade at another time with more of that. Remember people will take chances if they calculate it is a risk worth taking.)
  4. Never give info how much of the goods you actually have at home. ( The reason is same as above.)
  5. Never do trade at your home (unless you trust the person 100%) because you never know to who you are giving valuable information about how much you have, what your home look like, how many people are there (defense) etc.
  6. Doing the trade in other trader s home might mean that you are at his “playground“ (or he is stupid) so you are losing the edge. You are risking of being on unknown terrain. Always try to choose neutral ground somewhere that you can control the situation, giving the opponent the chance to feel safe. (But not safer than you).

It is most important that you understand when SHTF (for real) system is out, and only thing that protect you from losing everything is you.

Trade is gonna be a matter of carefully planning. It starts with information about who has something that you need, then checking that information, and rechecking, and then sending information to him that you want to trade, then setting the terms about the place and number of people where you’re gonna do the trade.

Usually, there was a rumor or information about who was safe to trade with. There was information about people who like to scam other people during the trade. If you did a good and fair trade with a man you could “save him“ as a safe trader (to some extent) for future trade.

Everything else is matter of trust and skills.

Maybe, just maybe, if you are living in some nice small town there is gonna be something like a market, where people freely gonna exchange their goods between each other.

I never saw anything like that because it needs some kind of system to back it.

 

Trade when SHTF is a high-risk situation simply because it is about resources, and there is no law, no system.

Are skills or products more valuable?

In the long run, skills were more valuable, simply because you can not “spend“ your skills.

If you had medical skills you could expect that people over the time (through the word on the street) will hear that, and that you simply will have opportunities to get something for that skill.

I pointed out in an earlier article that when a serious collapse happens, things fall apart around you fiscally, there are no services, so skills for “repairing“ were valuable, and so were technical skills.

Medicines were substituted with home (natural) remedies so knowing that stuff was valuable, making simple cloth pieces was good, and repairing weapons. I knew people who did good because they made very basic cigar holders from wood and empty bullet shell simply because people smoked bad tobbaco hand rolled in paper.

Skills that made the new reality easier.

Skills were also more safe to trade simply because by attacking and killing you, the attacker cannot take away your skills from you.

What were the top physical items for barter? Do you recommend that people stock up on things specifically for barter? If so, what kinds of things?

In my case those were MREs, meat cans, alcohol, batteries, candles, cigarettes, weapons and ammo, drugs, and medicines… but if we are talking about the future, preparing, some things need to be mentioned.

There are lists about “100 things to store for SHTF“, and while they are good lists, they may be completely different from “100 things to trade when SHTF.”

Obviously when SHTF you will miss everything, because the “trucks are stopped“ and there are no stores and normal buying.

The basics that you need to cover are something that every prepper already knows: food, defense, water, shelter, fire, medicine, and communication.

Out of these essentials, you go in deeper. Like under medicine you’ll have antibiotics but also some knowledge about natural remedies. Under food, you’ll have cans but also some way to produce food like seeds or hunting or whatever.

If you are PLANNING to store things for trade then you need to have a strategy for that.

Let’s say you are storing huge amounts of food for you and your family for SHTF but you are also planning to trade that food for other items when SHTF.

Some advice for people who are counting to store things for trade are:

  1. Store things of everyday use, nothing too fancy. For example store rice or pasta (if that food is common in your region), lighters, batteries, or candles.
  2. Store small things, or in small packages, stuff that is gonna be easy to carry hidden on you, in your jacket, for example, lighters, spices, cigarettes, quick soups… not cannister of fuel, bags of wheat. I am not saying not to store fuel. I am saying it is much better to carry 20 AA batteries to trade then a 20-liter canister of fuel especially because value might be similar. Remember, do not give reason to anyone to take the risk of attacking you because you have something.
  3. Think about things that are cheap today, may have multipurpose uses when SHTF, and do not take too much space to store (alcohol pads or condoms for example).
  4. Think about things that you can “sell but keep“. For example, a solar panel with a setup for charging batteries for people. You are selling charging of batteries to people.
  5. NEVER be the “big trader“ or the person who has a lot of interesting stuff. Be the small person who is gonna offer good things through the network of a few people. Being big trader means attracting too much attention with too many cool things that you have. Hide your trading activities through a network of other traders.
  6. Understand today’s value and the value when SHTF. Think about the small things that save lives, antibiotics, anti-tetanus shots, povidone pads [iodine]. For example, candles are really cheap today but will be rare when SHTF.
  7. Do not underestimate things that are people addicted to, no matter what you think about it. Cigarettes, alcohol, or coffee (or whatever is case in your region) – the value will go way up.
  8. “Store“ skills and knowledge. It is best investment. Learn skills that are gonna be valuable like gardening, shoe repairing, clothes making. Maybe you can be the person who has knowledge about natural remedies.

Should you have precious metals as a means for buying goods when the SHTF?

Through human history, gold and silver were valuable. They were used for getting goods in all times, including hardest times like wars and similar.

Having precious metal for SHTF is big in the prepping community but I need to point out some things.

The value of gold went down during SHTF so much that you need to think about it very hard.

For example, in normal times (I am using these numbers as an example) you could buy with one gold ring 300 small cans of meat. When SHTF you could buy 20, and you could buy 20 if you could find a man who wanted to take that ring from you.

He did not usually want to take it because he could take stuff that he could immediately use, like weapons, drugs, or medicines.

He simply could not do anything immediately useful with it.

Having precious metals is a great idea for later, when some kind of system jumps in, because they are gonna be again precious.

Right in the middle of SHTF, the value of it is poor.

That is one of the reasons why some local warlords came out as very powerful people after everything. They simply took precious metal from folks for a “can of the soup“ value (or sometimes for nothing) and they had enough power to store that metal for the time when it would be valuable again.

Do not throw everything into precious metals. Store immediately useful things.

What were the top skills?

It was simple: skills that you might use to kill people or to heal them.

So fighting, security, medical skills, knowing herbal remedies, repairing a weapon, making a new one.

Right after those skills were skills about food.

Knowing what kind of herbs around us you could eat, or even knowing what kind of tree bark you could eat maybe, how to make some plants edible mixed with other ingredients, how to repair clothes and things in your home.

Were there markets for bartering or did people mostly do this in private?

In one period of time there was something like a market, but it was strictly under control of local warlord, so it was not smart to go there since you really could not know what to expect.

Almost all the trades were made in private arrangments after you got information about someone who had something that he wants to trade.

The best situation was if you knew that person prior the war so you had already built trust from before.

Scams were usual, attacks during the trade happened too, especially if the value of goods was high.

If you need to trade for something, do that in advance. In other words, do not wait to be completely without food and then go to look for food through the trade, because you are under pressure, you are desperate. It is not a good setup for trade.

How did you remain safe when trading goods and services? What were the risks?

The basic rule is not to go alone to trade.

The reasons are very simple because you have resources with you for trade, you are possible target so you need more security – more people.

The trade place usually needed to be checked for possible ambush or scam setup. You needed people for that.

You needed a guard during the trade, someone to check up things during your negotiation with the other trader, someone who was going to watch for things.

The ideal number of people was 3.

The risks are scams (bad goods) or an attack.

You could lower that risk by trading with known people or simply by showing enough force so that they understand it is not worth the risk.

Scams were avoided by checking goods of course. If you are buying batteries you need to check them all. You need to taste coffee – is it mixed with old coffee that was used and dried? Cigarettes packs were carefully opened and 1-2 cigarettes could be missing and the pack glued again.

It was like a chess game. 

What are some myths about barter that most people think are the truth?

Trade is probably the survival topic with largest number of myths.

It is partly because we like to think that somehow the world will collapse but the majority of people will live by the rules from normal times, and partly because we are influenced by movies, shows, and fiction books. 

“When SHTF people simply get all together and help each other, and that goes for trade too.“

No, actually when times get really hard people jump into survival mode, or perish.

For you it may mean that you ‘l be nice, and do only good things, for another, it may mean that he will do whatever it takes so he and his family survive.

That may include killing you over 3 MREs during the trade.

“When SHTF I will thrive because I stored a lot of things for trade, and I will simply be the biggest trader.“ 

It is possible. People did that and survived. And even got rich after everything was over.

But they had gangs around them, enough manpower to protect the goods, the control to not be overrun, and they were ruthless.

Most probably, you are an ordinary person who just wants to survive SHTF. You do not have 100 armed people with you. You just need to be small and careful.

You are not a warlord.

“When it comes to trade it is all about weapon and force.“

Actually, it is not.

It is about the correct mindset to decide what makes sense in that moment and what you really need (and what you do not). Weapons help a lot but do not solve the problem alone.

It is very similar to bargaining at a flea market with the possibility of violence.

Anything to add?

After years of being in the survival world, talking with other preppers and writing my articles I found out that a great number of people  think something like “I cannot wait to go to trade when SHTF!“

In reality, one of the points of careful preparing is to delay the moment when you need to go out and trade as long as you can.

Why?

Because you’re gonna need time to scan what is going on and who is who in the new collapsed world. You need to gather information about who is good and who is not, who is trusted and who is a scammer, what area is safe

If you need to go out on the 10th day in order to trade something maybe you are doing something wrong?

 

More from Selco 

More information about Selco

Selco survived the Balkan war of the 90s in a city under siege, without electricity, running water, or food distribution.

In his online works, he gives an inside view of the reality of survival under the harshest conditions. He reviews what works and what doesn’t, tells you the hard lessons he learned, and shares how he prepares today.

He never stopped learning about survival and preparedness since the war. Regardless what happens, chances are you will never experience extreme situations like Selco did. But you have the chance to learn from him and how he faced death for months.

Real survival is not romantic or idealistic. It is brutal, hard and unfair. Let Selco take you into that world.

Read more of Selco’s articles here: https://shtfschool.com/blog/

And take advantage of a deep and profound insight into his knowledge and advice by signing up for the outstanding and unrivaled online course. More details here: https://shtfschool.com/survival-boot-camp/

This article first appeared at The Organic PrepperSelco: The Reality of Barter and Trade in an SHTF Economy

About the author:

Daisy is a coffee-swigging, gun-toting, homeschooling blogger who writes about current events, preparedness, frugality, and the pursuit of liberty on her website, The Organic Prepper. Daisy is the publisher of The Cheapskate’s Guide to the Galaxy, a monthly frugality newsletter, and she curates all the most important news links on her aggregate site, PreppersDailyNews.com. She is the best-selling author of 4 books and lives in the mountains of Virginia with her two daughters and an ever-growing menagerie. You can find Daisy onFacebookPinterest, and Twitter.

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bartering skills

By Rich M

One of the biggest threats we face today is a total financial collapse. It seems that people everywhere are just waiting for the one card to fall that’s holding up the whole house of cards. When that happens, it won’t be pretty.

In that instance, the dollar is going to become essentially worthless. Hyperinflation will kick in and the book value of the dollar will plummet. People and businesses won’t be willing to accept dollars as payment, simply because the dollar will be devaluing so rapidly. We will end up returning to a barter system for a lot of everyday personal commerce.

Likewise, a lot of other types of disasters can render money essentially useless. If an EMP attack comes, most people’s money will be trapped in the bank’s computer. They might not be able to access it for months. In that case, they’ll be seeking what they can trade, so that they can feed their families.

A lot of people are talking about stockpiling goods to use for bartering when that time comes. That’s a good idea — one that could prove quite profitable. The best barter goods are usually those that feed people’s vices; specifically alcohol and cigarettes. After that, anything that is needed for survival will probably be popular as barter goods. When Argentina went through their financial collapse, food became one of the top items for bartering.

That’s not all you can barter, though. Since a financial collapse is always accompanied by at least a partial collapse of society, there are many skills which can be bartered, as well. With the difficulty in getting these services from normal channels, people will be grateful to find others that can do them.

When you go to visit a doctor, you expect to pay him for his time. Why is that? It’s because that doctor knows things that you don’t. They’ve invested time and money in learning their profession. So, you aren’t just paying them for their time, you’re paying them for their knowledge, as well. If you were only paying them for their time, you’d be paying them the same rate that you pay someone to cut your lawn.

What makes the difference in that case is the knowledge that the doctor has. His time is more valuable because of that knowledge. Likewise, in any crisis situation, your knowledge is valuable. Don’t let people treat you as if it isn’t. If they don’t want to make a trade that is beneficial to you, you can always walk away. They need you more than you need them.

Warning Signs That Triggered The Deadliest Famines In History…

Skills to Trade

With that said, the next question is: What marketable survival skills do you have? Let’s start with those, and then we’ll look at some others.

1. Water purification – Most people don’t have the slightest idea of how to purify water, other than you can purify it by boiling it. They don’t even know how long to boil it.

2. Alternative cooking methods – Take away electricity and most people don’t have much of an idea of how to cook. Even obvious things, like using their barbecue grill might not occur to them. More exotic methods, such as solar ovens, are way beyond their understanding.

3. Fire starting – Yes, people will have problems starting fires. Unless someone is a smoker or has a fireplace, there’s a good chance they won’t have matches or a lighter.

4. Making bio-fuel – If you have the capability, you might just be able to sell any excess you have.

5. Gardening – Many people have vegetable gardens, so that they can supply their family with food when things fall apart. Your neighbors might look enviously at that garden, especially when they get hungry. Teach them how to start their own garden, supplying the seeds that they’ll need to get going.

6. Animal husbandry – Are you raising chickens or goats? Just like your vegetable garden, those might become the focus of neighborhood attention. You can help your neighbors start their own chicken coop, perhaps seeding a few chicks to them.

7. Home defense – If things get bad, you might need to organize your neighborhood for mutual self-defense. As the leader and planner of that effort, your neighbors should offer you something in return.There are probably many other survival skills you have, but they might be more specific to surviving in the wilderness, rather than surviving in an urban situation. You probably won’t be able to barter those as well, unless you offer classes to your neighbors.

There are a whole host of other skills which could be bartered, as well. Pretty much anything that is necessary for survival, which people are accustomed to getting from society, will be in demand. In addition, any of the trades will always be in demand, just as they are now. You might know some of these skills, but not use them as your profession. But then, if your profession dries up from the crisis, these skills might be what you need to provide for your family.

8. Medical services – Medical services will always be in demand; in a crisis they are often overloaded. You have to be careful with this one, as there are some legal liability issues associated with it. However, anyone who knows basic wound treatment and first aid can do that, even if they aren’t certified. If people have a problem getting to medical help, the ability to take care of a wound may save someone’s life. That’s worth a lot.

9. Midwife – If medical services are overloaded or hard to get to, then the age old profession of the midwife will be needed. Once again, just like any other medical service, you have to be careful about liability; as you could be held liable for anything that goes wrong.

10. Psychology or counseling – Many people will have trouble dealing with the problems that they are facing and need help adjusting to them. Being able to council those people and help them come to grips with post-crisis life will be valuable.

11. Home repair (of all sorts) – Many disasters cause damage to homes. As those homes are necessary to help people survive, being able to make repairs can be very profitable.

12.Mechanics – We will always need mechanics to keep our cars running, as long as there is gas to run them. This is truer today than in the past, because less people know how to do it themselves.

13. Small engine repair – Strange as it sounds, just because someone can repair a car, doesn’t mean that they can repair a lawn mower or generator. In a crisis situation we will probably be depending upon these devices even more than normal; increasing the need for this skill.

14. Appliance repair – With people having less money, they won’t be able to just run out and buy a new washing machine if theirs breaks. Having it repaired would be much cheaper. This may even apply to small appliances if merchandise starts becoming scarce.

15. Gunsmithing – When people get hungry and desperate, there’s no telling what they will do. People who have guns may not have the ability to fix them themselves.

16. Clergy – More than half of the counseling done in this country is done by clergy. That won’t become any less in the aftermath of a crisis. Their services will also be needed for helping with weddings and funerals.

There are probably some other skills, such as blacksmithing, which should be added to this list. Take time to inventory your own skills and see how they might be useful in the aftermath of a financial crash or other crisis. Don’t limit yourself to only these things; think of anything you know how to do, which might be useful in a survival situation. Many things that we don’t commonly use today will be needed, as people are forced to return to the ways of our ancestors.

If the skills which you are planning on bartering require special materials to do, you should put in a stock of those materials as well. Granted, you probably can’t stock everything, but you can stock the most common things you’d use. That way, you’ll have something to start with.

One of the questions that many preppers have about bartering is that of what to accept in trade for their trade goods or skills. There are several ways of looking at this. Typically, preppers talk about trading their trade goods or skills for things that they don’t have. No matter how thoroughly any of us prepare, we’re going to forget something. If you need that something, then it becomes the most important thing for you to trade for.

Another thing you can trade for is people’s time. Just surviving is going to be a full-time job. You may have trouble coming up with enough time to survive, as well as barter your skills. Well then, barter your skills for other people’s time. In other words, if you have a neighbor that needs drinking water, tell them you’ll purify their water, if they haul water from the river for both of you. Or, you’ll help them start their vegetable garden, if they’ll pull weeds in yours. That way, you can make better use of the time that you have.

Remember, your time will be more valuable than theirs, simply because you have the needed skills to survive. Be fair with people, but don’t let them take advantage of you either. Your prime concern is taking care of your own family, not theirs.

One last category of things you can barter for is valuables. Eventually, things will return to normal, or a new normal. While a silver tea set may lose its relative value during the crisis, because it isn’t necessary for survival; after the crisis its value will return. When that happens, you can sell the tea service for a profit.

During World War II, there was a lot of this going on. There were constant shortages in occupied Europe. The priority was given to the German military forces, leaving insufficient food for the population in these countries. Many people dealt with this by going out to the country and trading silver tea sets and other valuables to farmers for hams cheeses, and other foodstuffs.

When the war was over and Europe returned to normal, many of those farmers, who had been poor before the war, ended up quite comfortable. Their black-market bartering of food during the war years made them a tidy profit when it came time to sell those valuables.

More at Off The Grid News: 16 Skills Useful For Bartering In A Crisis Situation

barter new graphic

By

Whether people realize it or not, the bartering system is still alive and well. We do it every single day, when we go to the grocery store, the gas station, and when we pay the rent. In case you aren’t familiar with the barter system, it’s pretty easy to understand. It can be defined simply as the exchange of goods or services between two people. For example, if you needed your car repaired, you would go to a mechanic who would require some form of payment in exchange for his services to fix up your automobile.

Today, we barter with paper money issued by the government. At one time in history, not all that long ago, this paper currency was backed with gold, giving it real value. Since leaving the Gold Standard, the currency issued by the government basically only has value because the Treasury says it does. In a SHTF-type of scenario, paper money is completely and utterly useless. In order to survive in a world without government backed currency, you will need to be able to barter with other survivors to get the supplies you and your loved ones need to survive.

Most people today feel safe and sound in the current government issued currency situation, and don’t believe that anything is going to happen to upset things. However, all one needs to do is look at what happened in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. People were stuck without any access to funds or outside help, so they were strictly on their own for survival. In order to get what you need in that type of crisis, you must know how to get supplies from those who have them, by having something they need in return.

Here are a few rules to live by when it comes to bartering with other survivors in a SHTF situation. Keep in mind that your life may depend on your ability to barter and acquire food and other supplies, so take these to heart.

Items That Are Absolutely Essential

barterThe type of items you need to make it through a SHTF situation can be broken down into two groups. The first group is made up of items you absolutely must have in order to live. The second group is creature comforts.

Two things you must have in order to survive are food and water. These two are your number one priority. Since you need these items to live, that means others do too. If you have livestock and crops, these can be as good as gold in a bartering situation. By trading food and water you can almost guarantee you will get whatever you need from someone looking to trade. Make sure that you have a way to replenish your supply before you begin to trade these items, otherwise you will be in big trouble.

Another important group of items you will need is camping and hunting gear. Hunting will be one of your main sources of getting high protein food to eat and sustain your strength. Any item that can be used to survive away from urban areas will be great for trading with other people. Be sure to visit local hunting and outdoors shops and stock up on supplies when they are putting items on sale. This will make sure that when things go south, you will have “currency” to trade with those who don’t have the means of hunting or finding suitable lodging.

Creature Comforts

The second group of items both to barter with and for are comfort items. These are items that aren’t necessary to sustain life, but they do make things more comfortable, and a little less dark.

Hygienic supplies like soap, toothpaste, and toilet paper are some of the best supplies to trade with. Staying clean is incredibly important to your health and safety. In a SHTF situation, a cut or scrape that gets infected could lead to death. Stock up on soap and toothpaste and you will have commodities that everyone needs, making you “wealthy” in this type of world.

Another comfort item that is good for barter is alcohol. People love their booze, even in a world that’s fallen completely apart. You will be surprised at the great lengths individuals will go to in order to get a cup of moonshine.

Tips to Knowbarter a-n

  • If you are bartering with someone, it’s like playing a game of poker. You don’t want to give away too much information in your body language or facial expressions. Keep a straight face! Do not let the other person see that you are in desperate need of the items they have. If someone sees that you need something badly, the price of the exchange will go up.
  • Always ask the individual you are bartering with what type of items they are looking for. You do not want to show off your entire inventory to someone you don’t know. Start with the items that are of lesser value and work your way up to the valuable ones. Showing off the best you have first could cause you to be harmed by someone who is desperate for that item.
  • Avoid trading with weapons at first. While items like guns and ammunition can be extremely valuable in survival situations, they can also be deadly. Trading with someone you don’t know well could lead to someone taking the weapon and using it on you. At that point they will also have access to your entire inventory, leaving you with nothing.

While no one wants to have a situation like this occur, the reality is that we never know what is going to happen day to day. It is better to learn these skills and be prepared, so that if that day comes, you aren’t the desperate one roaming around for the basics of life. Stay well supplied and stocked with the materials mentioned above, and you will be well ahead of the curve when the SHTF. – SurvivoPedia

Find out more about long term survival on Prepper’s Blueprint.

Photo sources: 1, 2, 3.