13 Dec 2014: Volcano Discovery
Stromboli (Eolian Islands, Italy): Activity has remained low – there is no lava effusion. At the vents in the summit craters, there are occasional small explosions and strong degassing.
Tremor is low, and CO2 emissions have decreased a bit over the past weeks.
Access to the area above 400 m remains closed.
Bardarbunga (Iceland): The Icelandic Met Office (IMO) published two great graphics showing the gradual evolution of the Holuhraun (or now called Nornahraun) lava flow field and compares it with the two largest lava fields erupted on Iceland in historic times, Laki in 1783 and Eldgjá in 934 AD. Even though it is the largest eruption in more than 150 years on Iceland, it still is much much smaller than those two.
According to the latest measurements, the lava field from Holuhraun now covers 77,5 km². The eruption which had its 100th day on 9 Dec, continues with little changes and there is no end in sight.
Active breakouts are located on the northern margin of the lava field, now called “Nornahraun”.
Earthquake activity under the central volcano remains elevated, but over the past weeks, earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 have become more rare. Recent geochemical studies of the lava show that it seems to rise directly from a source at 9-20 km depth, i.e. is generated by decompressing mantle material.
Fogo (Cape Verde): Volcanic activity continues, but the advance of the lava flows has slowed down to approx. 5 meters per hour and it seems that the effusion rate has diminished.
The abundant presence of gases and ash in the area of the Cha das Caldeiras caldera promts authorities to maintain a total access restriction.
By the afternoon of 10 Dec, the most advanced flow was approx. 600 m ENE of the rmeains of Bangaeira village. Whether or not it will reach the break in slope to the outer caldera flank and potentially reach the populated coastal area is impossible to predict.
Nevertheless, authorities are preparing a contingency plan for the possible evacuation of Cutelo Alto and Fonsaco areas, the latest report of United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) writes:
Aso (Kyushu): Strombolian activity and low ash emissions are near continuous at the Nakadake crater.
Azuma (Honshu): Japan’s Met Office (JMA) detected increased seismic activity at the volcano and raised the alert level to 2. Access to the crater, a popular walking trail, is now closed.
Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): The activity at the volcano remains similar as during the past weeks. The extrusion of viscous lava continues to feed a new tongue in the upper part of the southern slope.
Its steep front suffers occasional collapses that trigger rockfalls and small to medium pyroclastic flows, sometimes reaching 2-3 km in length such as this morning:
Kilauea (Hawai’i): The lava flow continues to advance slowly towards Pahoa, but there is no immediate threat at the moment.
Yesterday morning, HVO reported that “the leading edge of the flow was about 3.0 km (1.9 mi) upslope from the intersection of Pāhoa Village Road and Highway 130, near the Pāhoa Marketplace.
The active lobe is following a steepest-descent path that takes the flow towards the intersection of Pāhoa Village Road and Highway 130, in the vicinity of the Pāhoa Marketplace. The flow front has also entered a burn scar which has significantly reduced the amount of smoke seen from the flow front in our webcams.
Santiaguito (Guatemala): Activity remains relatively low. A moderate explosion occurred this morning, producing an ash plume that rose 700 m. Weak to moderate avalanches were seen originating from the Caliente dome’s eastern flank.
Fuego (Guatemala): A small paroxysm occurred at the volcano during the night between Wed-Thu, INSIVUMEH reports in a special bulletin. Activity, which generally had been elevated over the past weeks, increased during the evening of 10 Dec and towards a phase of continuous lava fountaining of 100-150 m height. Turbine-like degassing sounds accompanied the eruption.
The intense phase of activity lasted until the next morning (11 Dec) when it gradually decreased and returned to the normal mode of intermittent explosions.
Ambrym (Vanuatu): active lava lakes in several craters (updated 14 Aug 2013)
Aso (Kyushu): intense strombolian activity from 2 vents (updated 12 Dec 2014)
Bagana (Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea): ash emissions, lava dome growth (updated 10 Nov 2014)
Bardarbunga (Iceland): lava lake, sporadic fountains, lava flow (updated 18 Sep 2014)
Barren Island (Indian Ocean): intermittent activity, likely strombolian-type and/or lava flows (updated 4 Feb 2014)
Batu Tara (Sunda Islands, Indonesia): strombolian explosions, ash plumes up to 500 m, extrusion of a small lava dome with rockfalls (updated 4 Nov 2014)
Colima (Western Mexico): new lava flow on SW flank (updated 30 Nov 2014)
Copahue (Chile/Argentina): ash venting (updated 4 Dec 2014)
Dukono (Halmahera): thermal anomaly, probably small explosive activity in summit crater (updated 25 Nov 2014)
Erebus (Antarctica): active lava lake in summit crater (updated 8 Dec 2014)
Erta Ale (Ethiopia): active lava lake in northern pit crater, active hornito with intermittend flow in southern crater (updated 11 Jan 2013)
Fogo (Cape Verde): lava fountaining (updated 12 Dec 2014)
Fuego (Guatemala): strombolian explosions from summit crater, intermittent lava flows (updated 12 Dec 2014)
Ibu (Halmahera, Indonesia): stromolian and phreatomagmatic explosions (updated 14 Nov 2014)
Karymsky (Kamchatka): occasional small explosions, thermal anomaly (updated 4 Oct 2014)
Kilauea (Hawai’i): new lava flow from vents on NE flank of Pu’u ‘O’o (updated 13 Aug 2013)
Manam (Papua New Guinea): degassing, occasional ash venting (updated 28 Aug 2013)
Marapi (Western Sumatra, Indonesia): sporadic explosions (updated 27 Mar 2014)
Nishino-shima (Volcano Islands, Japan): growing island (updated 3 Dec 2014)
Nyamuragira (DRCongo): active lava lake (updated 29 Nov 2014)
Nyiragongo (DRCongo): active lava lake in summit crater (updated 26 Feb 2014)
Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania): effusion of natrocarbonatite lava inside the crater (updated 8 Jul 2013)
Poas (Costa Rica): phreatic explosions (updated 14 Oct 2014)
Rabaul (Tavurvur) (New Britain, Papua New Guinea): lava fountains, ash emissions from Tavurvur cone (updated 12 Sep 2014)
Raung (East Java): mild strombolian activity in summit crater (updated 2 Dec 2014)
Reventador (Ecuador): lava flow on southwestern flank, intermittent explosions (updated 7 Dec 2014)
Sakurajima (Kyushu, Japan): ash venting, intermittent explosions (updated 30 Nov 2014)
Sangeang Api (Indonesia): growing lava dome & lava flow (updated 7 Jul 2014)
Santiaguito (Guatemala): generation of hot lahars (updated 12 Dec 2014)
Semeru (East Java, Indonesia): growing lava dome, lava flow, strombolian activity (updated 26 Nov 2014)
Shiveluch (Kamchatka): growing lava dome, incandescent avalanches, occasional explosions (updated 5 Dec 2014)
Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): continuing pyroclastic flows (updated 12 Dec 2014)
Slamet (Central Java): intense strombolian explosions (updated 13 Sep 2014)
Suwanose-jima (Ryukyu Islands): strombolian activity in summit crater (updated 14 Nov 2014)
Tungurahua (Ecuador): moderate to strong strombolian explosions from central crater (updated 25 Sep 2014)
Ubinas (Peru): degassing, sporadic small explosions and ash venting (updated 11 Sep 2014)
Yasur (Tanna Island, Vanuatu): ash emissions, weak strombolian explosions (updated 14 Aug 2013)
Zhupanovsky (Kamchatka, Russia): degassing, last eruption ended mid Oct 2014 (updated 30 Nov 2014)